Policy Work and Research

The IDEA Initiative conducts policy analysis, carries out research projects, and contributes to expert advisory processes to support and inform work to address global health challenges, from antimicrobial resistance to innovation and access to health technologies.


Policy Work

antimicrobial resistance

The IDEA Initiative serves as the Strategic Policy Program for ReAct--Action on Antibiotic Resistance and as the Secretariat for the Antibiotic Resistance Coalition. In these roles, we carry out and support:

The Program has been called upon to serve in various expert advisory roles, contributing to the:


The program conducts research spanning the One Health dimensions of antimicrobial resistance.

This ranges from commissioned papers, such as for UK Review on Antimicrobial Resistance on “A Framework for Costing the Lowering of Antimicrobial Use in Food Animal Production”) and for WHO on “Building a Global Framework for Antimicrobial Development and Stewardship”

  • contributions to special journal supplements

    • So AD, Shah TA, Roach S, Ling Chee Y., and Nachman KE. An Integrated Systems Approach is Needed to Ensure the Sustainability of Antibiotic Effectiveness for Both Humans and Animals. J Law Med Ethics 43 Suppl 3, 38–45. June 2015.

    • So AD and Shah TA. New business models for antibiotic innovation. Uppsala Journal of Medical Sciences, 2014; 119(2), 176-180.

    • So AD, Bigdeli M, Tomson G, Woodhouse W, Ombaka E, Peralta AQ. Part 5: The access and excess dilemma. “Antibiotic resistance—the need for global solutions,” The Lancet Infectious Diseases Commission 2013 Dec; 13(12): 1057-98.

    • So AD, Gupta N, Brahmachari SK, Chopra I, Munos B, Nathan C, Outterson K, Paccaud JP, Payne DJ, Peeling RW, Spigelman, M, Weigelt J. Towards new business models for R&D for novel antibiotics. Drug Resistance Updates. 2011;14(2): 88-94.

  • analyses of pharmaceutical innovation of novel classes of antibiotics

    • Freire-Moran L, Aronsson B, Manz C, So AD, Monnet DL, Cars O, the ECDC-EMA Working Group. Critical shortage of new antibiotics in development against multidrug-resistant bacteria—Time to react is now. Drug Resistance Updates. 2011;14(2): 118-124.

So AD, Ruiz-Esparza Q, Gupta N, Cars O. 3Rs for Innovating Conserving Novel Antibiotics: Sharing Resources, Risks and Rewards. British Medical Journal. 2012; 344:e1782.